First, I want to talk a bit about the philosophy of philosophizing about storytelling. You might think how good a story is is subjective, and I can't claim a story is bad just because I didn't like it. But if you believe that then what's the point of even talking about this stuff? If the quality of a story is subjective, then all this talk about the way any element of a story "should" be is meaningless, so what are you even doing on this page? Now that we've cleared that up, here's my repository of advice.
Second, I want to state that most of the below philosophies were devised before my understanding of human emotions was as deep as it is now (and it still is very incomplete), so any time I say something in this section like "the three prime traits heroes need", there's a good chance I don't really believe that anymore and my philosophy will change when I have a more complete understanding of psychology.