"mi kei kotu" means "I have books". Not all the books, nor any specific books, I just possess at least some object that can be described as "book" or "books". Similarly, "keθ ʌ lepi" means that "trees" - not necessarily all of them, just some entity that could be described as "tree" or "trees" - are green. Basically, Spem's default identifier is "yɪm".

English doesn't have a consistent default; it depends on the context. "Trees are green" is a general blanket statement, presumably applying to all trees... or to be precise, at least the vast majority. It doesn't actually entail a strict 100%. For an example where it's more obvious that it's different from using "all", "Humans have 10 fingers" doesn't mean that any being with 9 fingers is automatically not a human. It's a "general, but not universal" statement, or "almost all". Though, notably, it's more universal than "most".

On the other hand, "Teenagers did this" isn't by any means accusing all teenagers - that example uses the Spem logic. In just means some teenagers did this.

So English seemingly varies between yɪm and nir kim for a default, with no pattern I can discern.

Japanese is a far more interesting case. Since Japanese has no word for "the", and its general philosophy is "leave out as much as you can to infer it from context", often an unqualified noun in Japanese conveys the meaning equivalent to "the". Although, I'm pretty sure Japanese would also express the English "nir kim" meaning the exact same way: I think "猫はかわいい" means "cats are cute" just as much as it means "the cat is cute". It's a horrible case of ambiguity, but it demonstratives the possibility of ɪl as a default identifier.

While I like the thought of ɪl as default, I think yɪm is the superior choice.


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