The two main types of linking clauses are "if _ then _", and "because _ therefore _". In most languages, these expressions don't distinguish between the different types of relationships they can imply, including causation and deduction. For example, "If you do X, Y will happen" (meaning that X will cause Y) is a different meaning from "If you do X, that entails that Y will happen" (X might not be the cause of Y, but that it happens gives us grounds to believe Y will happen). Spem distinguishes these different relationships: